Xanthelasma is a yellowish spot that is slightly raised on the skin surface and is located on both eyelids. It is painless and soft to the touch. Usually, xanthelasma is found on both eyelids. They can be single or multiple. Xanthelasma can combine to form a blister element - xanthomas.
It is typical for xanthelasma to start suddenly, without any symptoms. It develops gradually, slowly and without any subjective complaints to the patient. Xanthelasma can be the size of a pea to a large bean. It never transforms into a malignant process and does not pose a threat to human life. However, numerous and large xanthelasma cause a cosmetic defect.
The resulting xanthelasma can remain for life. It gradually increases in size and quantity.
The formation of xanthelasma and xanthomas in children are signs of hypercholesterolemic xanthomatosis. At this time, the function of the cardiovascular system and the liver is disturbed, and cysts may form.
Consultation of a dermatologist and an endocrinologist is recommended for patients with xanthelasma. The characteristic appearance and localization allow for immediate diagnosis. Examination of xanthelasma and xanthoma is performed by squeezing with a glass (diascopy). At this time, the xanthelasma becomes bloodless and the yellow color is clearly visible.
Lipid metabolism must be checked in these people. For this, blood cholesterol and lipoproteins are examined.
There is no specific treatment for xanthelasma. In the treatment of xanthelasma and xanthomas formed against the background of fat metabolism disorders, the exchange rate should be adjusted first. Patients with elevated cholesterol and lipid metabolism disorders should follow a diet low in animal fats. For this purpose, animal fats are replaced by sunflower, corn and olive oil. Such patients are prescribed lipotropic and cholesterol-lowering drugs.
Surgical treatment is indicated for cosmetic purposes. For this purpose, surgical excision, diathermocoagulation, treatment with "CO2" and "Eryag" lasers, electrocoagulation, and cryodestruction are performed. Procedures are performed in outpatient settings with local anesthesia.